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Ancient Near East

The ancient Near East refers to early civilizations in a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and Syria), Anatolia (modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan), as well as Persia (modern Iran), and Ancient Egypt, from the beginnings of Sumer in the 6th millennium BCE until the region's conquest by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE.

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Theophany and Chaoskampf

The Interpretation of Theophanic Imagery in the Baal Epic, Isaiah, and the Twelve
ISBN: 978-1-61719-160-2
The imagery of thunder and lightning, fire and earthquake which attends YHWH's theophany in Old Testament poetic texts has most often been interpreted as a series of metaphors in biblical scholarship. This work applies insights from recent work in metaphor theory and myth theory to argue that this traditional interpretation of poetic theophanic imagery is mistaken, and that these texts make better exegetical sense when understood against the background of the ANE myth of the defeat of chaos.

Die Aramaismen im Alten Testament

Series: Analecta Gorgiana 194
ISBN: 978-1-60724-290-1
In this essential contribution to the study of Aramaisms in the Bible, noted linguist E. Kautzsch provides a thorough introduction to the subject. Since Aramaisms are not overly abundant in the Bible, Kautzsch has the space to dedicate a significant analysis. For linguists interested in how Aramaic influenced biblical Hebrew, as understood at the turn of the twentieth century, this little book will be of great value.

Beiträge zur Semitischen Metrik

Series: Analecta Gorgiana 193
ISBN: 978-1-60724-289-5
This brief contribution to the discussion of Semitic metrics was written by a renowned scholar of biblical languages. Concentrating on the partial acrostic poem in Nahum 1.2-2.3, Bickell addresses the metrics of the piece. Laying out the text in Hebrew and in transliteration, Bickell gives his own translation along with his metrical observations. For anyone interested in the poetic structures of Semitic languages, particularly biblical Hebrew, this booklet will provide considerable insight.

Die Religion des Alten Testaments

Unter den Religionen des Vorderen Orients
Series: Analecta Gorgiana 192
ISBN: 978-1-60724-288-8
The aim of this booklet is to given an account of the nature of the religion of the Old Testament, especially those aspects that differentiate it from other ancient religions. Fitting with the emerging historical-critical Zeitgeist, Marti follows the usual division of Israelite religion into nomadic, peasant, prophetic, and legal religions. Various accoutrements and components of the religious life of antiquity are considered throughout this somewhat contrived course of Israel’s religious development. Written when Assyriology was just beginning to come into its own, Marti still finds the Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis a compelling explanation for the form of the biblical material.

The Creation-Story of Genesis I

Sumerian Theogony and Cosmogony
Series: Analecta Gorgiana 174
ISBN: 978-1-60724-245-1
In this brief study of the creation account in Genesis 1, Radau makes full use of the Sumerian materials available in his day. Summarizing the sea monster versus deity scenario known from the Enuma Elish’s account of Marduk against Tiamat, he shows how Yahweh fits this role in Genesis 1. Going into linguistic detail of the Hebrew and Sumerian sources, he draws a set of correlations between the two.

Mount Sinai

A Modern Pilgrimage
ISBN: 978-1-60724-243-7
This timeless travelogue by noted hymnographer and missionary A. Mary R. Dobson recounts her journey to the manuscript-rich monastery of St. Catherine’s in the Sinai peninsula. Traveling with her cousin, Orientatlist Rendel Harris, Dobson wrote an account of her journey that still captures the imagination of modern day readers.

Die Höllenfahrt der Istar, ein altbabylonisches Epos

Nebst Proben assyrischer Lyrik
Series: Analecta Gorgiana 175
ISBN: 978-1-60724-246-8
This volume contains Schrader’s study of the underworld journey of Ishtar. He examines this Old Babylonian epic together with samples from Assyrian poems. The text is given, along with a translation, commentary and glossary.

The Early History of Syria and Palestine

ISBN: 978-1-60724-244-4
Although written before the modern discoveries that define Ancient Near Eastern studies today, Paton’s historic foray into the history of Syria and Palestine served to start a continuing discussion that remains active today. Covering the Babylonian, Aramaean, Egyptian, Hittite, and Assyrian empires, Paton demonstrates what was known of the history of the region with the limited resources of nineteenth-century explorations.


Series: Analecta Gorgiana 525
ISBN: 978-1-61719-040-7
Tiamat was the Babylonian sea deity. The sea was affiliated with evil. Tiamat was therefore thought to be evil. As a result, the writers of Genesis 1 purposely omitted any wording relating to the word ‘sea’.

The God Ašur

Series: Analecta Gorgiana 524
ISBN: 978-1-61719-039-1
The name Asur is difficult. In cuneiform, it is designated for the city, country, and deity. However, it appears that the deity was named after the city, which emerged first.

The Bhartrharinirveda of Harihara

Now First Translated from the Sanskrit and Prakrit
Series: Analecta Gorgiana 523
ISBN: 978-1-61719-038-4
Bhartrharinirveda of Harihara is a play that glorifies the Yoga philosophy, which teaches that the summum bonuzz is the discrimination and separation of soul from matter, thus leading through renunciation of the world to isolation of the ego.

Older and Later Elements in the Code of Hammurapi

Series: Analecta Gorgiana 521
ISBN: 978-1-61719-036-0
Jastrow addresses how the final codification of the laws of Hammurapi evolved and which process the Babylonians used to get there. The Code of Hammurapi was subject to constant adjustments, providing that conditions constantly changed and new situations arose.

Two Sanskrit Inscriptions Engraven on Stone

The Original Texts, with Translations and Comments
Series: Analecta Gorgiana 520
ISBN: 978-1-61719-035-3
A significant portion of this article contains the original texts, translations, and comments of two Sanskrit inscriptions discovered in 1857. Both inscriptions list the names of the rulers of Chedi and the names of their consorts and kinsmen.

The Hymn to Bêlit, K. 257 (HT. 126-131)

Series: Analecta Gorgiana 518
ISBN: 978-1-61719-033-9
The Sumerian hymn K. 257 is in the Emne-sal dialect, which is the non-Semitic designation for a variation of Sumerian. The focus of the hymn is the goddess Belit. However, no conclusion was reached about her origin.

On the Origin of the Lunar Division of the Zodiac Represented in the Nakshatra System of the Hindus

Series: Analecta Gorgiana 517
ISBN: 978-1-61719-032-2
Burgess attempts to prove the originality of the nakshatra system to the Hindus. He proves the early existence of this system and disproves the origin of the lunar zodiac system to the Chinese and the Arabs.

The So-Called Epic of Paradise

Series: Analecta Gorgiana 516
ISBN: 978-1-61719-031-5
The article refutes many of the arguments Stephen Henry Langdon made in his article on the text “The Sumerian Epic of Paradise, Flood, and Fall of Man”. The essay concludes with the entire text laid out and a commentary.

Between Law and Narrative

The Method and Function of Abstraction
ISBN: 978-1-59333-912-8
Aside from being the content of speeches by characters in narrative, how do passages of laws in the Pentateuch interact with the surrounding narratives? This book proposes that certain passages of law in Leviticus and Numbers offer direction for the interpretation of adjacent segments of narrative. This 'direction' may serve to emphasize select themes and concepts in narrative. Alternatively, it may misdirect readers, or suggest alternative options to more accessible interpretations for a stretch of narrative.

Die Hellenisierung des Semitischen Monotheismus

Series: Analecta Gorgiana 179
ISBN: 978-1-60724-272-7
Deissmann was a scholar well known for his work with the Greek of the New Testament. In this little volume he considers the Hellenization of Semitic monotheism. Primarily concerned with the changes after Alexander’s conquest, the book is a brief exploration of Greek religion in the aftermath of conquest. Semitic monotheism was, according to Deissmann, a new concept for the Greek world. Hellenistic outlooks had long been influenced by classical viewpoints. Into this cultural milieu the Judaic concept of monotheism made immediate inroads. This influence is explored primarily in linguistic form, including considerations of the Septuagint. Both Hellenists and Semitic scholars will find material of interest here. Observations made by Deissmann influenced later thought in this field. Stretching across disciplines, this study will interest cultural historians as well. Share the sense of discovery with this useful booklet.

Drought, Famine, Plague and Pestilence

Ancient Israel’s Understandings of and Responses to Natural Catastrophes
ISBN: 978-1-59333-649-3
This interdisciplinary study integrates textual analysis of the Hebrew Bible and comparable ancient Near Eastern material with social theory and archaeology in order to articulate the ancient Israelites' taken-for-granted understandings of natural disasters, their intellectual and theological challenges to those understandings, and their intellectual and theological reconstructions thereof.

Aspects of Ancient Near Eastern Chronology (c. 1600–700 BC)

ISBN: 978-1-60724-127-0
There can be no more important topic in historical studies than chronology, for it is chronology which gives meaning to history by placing individuals, events and material remains within their true sequence. This work argues that the orthodox Ancient Near Eastern chronology is fundamentally wrong and that consequently the histories of the Great Kingdoms of Egypt, Babylonia, Assyria and Hatti, along with other minor kingdoms such as Israel/Judah, must be radically rewritten.

Cuneiform Lexical Miscellany

Series: Analecta Gorgiana 115
ISBN: 978-1-60724-047-1
The cuneiform terms for sport introduce these studies on a variety of topics dealing with Akkadian and Sumerian lexicography. Other essays include an exploration of a cuneiform description of a volcanic eruption, the Assyrian words pâtu (blowy), pâţu (brim), miţpânu (longbow), talîmu (full brother), budulxu (bdellium), zâzu (halve), marçu (sick and arduous), xamâdu (to help), napšu (lust), and kamâsu, kanâšu, and qamâçu. Semitic and Classical descriptions of naphtha and asphalt, and a study of the cuneiform name of the home of ‘Omar Khayyâm are included. Sumerian lexicography is not neglected, with explorations of nimur (salt, smoke, salt-swamp), and azalak (fuller).

Die Gedichte des Mutalammis

Arabisch und Deutsch
Series: Analecta Gorgiana 104
ISBN: 978-1-60724-030-3
In this edition of the poems of Mutalammis, a 6th-century poet from the tribe of Bakr, Vollers draws on his extensive experience in Cairo to present an informative edition of the poems in both Arabic and German translation. After a substantial introduction to the material at hand, the Arabic texts, annotated, are presented. This is followed by the fragments that have survived and a translation of texts I to XVII. With this wealth of material, the interested reader of early Arabic poetry will find this edition of poems by Mutalammis a welcome edition to their library of Arabic literature.

A Catalogue of the Arabic, Persian and Hindustany Manuscripts

Of the Libraries of the King of Oudh
Edited by A. Sprenger
ISBN: 978-1-60724-304-5
The full title of this work indicates the scope of its contents: A Catalogue of the Arabic, Persian and Hindustany Manuscripts of the Libraries of the King of Oudh, Compiled by Order of the Government of India. This first volume was the only part of the project completed by editor Aloys Sprenger, and it contains the Persian and Hindustani poetry. This catalogue includes biographies of Persian and Urdu poets, a chapter of works of Persian poets, and a brief chapter on the work of Hindustani poets, which concludes the works.

Altbabylonische Urkunden aus Sippara

Texte mit Umschrift, Übersetzung und Kommentar
Series: Analecta Gorgiana 106
ISBN: 978-1-60724-032-7
Sippar had yielded thousands of clay tablets and these were still being published in this period. Texts are given in transliteration and translation, and commentary is included. The next section concerns the representation from seal impressions, those categorized by gods and those categorized by epic. A comparison of names and an overview of published cuneiform texts also play a role in the discussion. The texts are presented in line drawings and photographs of cylinder-seal impressions conclude the work.

Hymnen und Gebete an Marduk

Series: Analecta Gorgiana 105
ISBN: 978-1-60724-031-0
In this widely cited study of the hymns and prayers to Marduk, Hehn has brought together a very useful resource for students of Babylonian religion. The genealogy of Marduk, his sphere of influence, his names and his role as a determiner of fate open the work. Marduk’s function as the protector of Babylon and his persona compared to the biblical idea of the divine, as well as the conflict with the dragon are addressed. There follow several texts that fit into the categories of hymns and prayers to Marduk. Each one is given in transliteration, translation, and with comments. The study concludes with line drawings of the individual tablets.